Translator's Comments

So I would like to thank for Mr. T. Sato who permit to post this abridged translation in this page. He is the largest publisher of cactus and succulent books in Japan. If you would like to purchase this book or other related plant photo books from Japan, you should visit Mr. Sato's web site where you will find some nice photo books.

Amended on May 20th 2000.

Astrophytum Hand Book by Mr. T. Sato
published in March 25th 1973

<<Vol 1 Asterias family>>

page 1 preface by T. Sato
page 2 An essay "Living with Superior plant" by Hiroshi Hirao
page 4 The roots of A. asterias
A. asterias was imported to Kobe Japan in 1928. and etc....
page 6 Mirakuru Kabuto by T. Sato
This plant is a mutation of native collected from habitat.
They say Mirakuru is similar to Super Kabuto, However you can
find some differences, If you view both plants at one time.
A white dot of Super Kabuto raise up, but Mirakuru's
white dot is flatly like as Japanese paper. There is various posterity as
Super Kabuto, but the size is up to 8cm originally. The original plant went rot
for a short life span originate in such small size.
Mirakuru grow up 19 centimeter or more, and start senility now.
The shape has a tendency to become star shaped and white dot increase
Its size at the apex part.
I named this plant "MIRAKURUS" as horticultural name, means
miracle of A. asterias.
page 7 upper When time of most beautiful period.
middle right An another A. asterias has some Mirakuru-dots
middle left A close up for white dots
lower right It start senility, because Buds appears between ribs
lower left It becomes big size.

page 8 An essay about Mirakuru Kabuto by Masaomi Takeo
I had a contemplation to this plant, which was imported by myself in 1980
and felt strong impression to see this plant. I sold whole plants
in the greenhouse inside, when am taking care and grow the plant.
I kept his action at the business. He paied VERY carefully to carry out this Kabuto
in his way home. He had been admiring this Miracle Kabuto during whole his
New Years Holiday.
I attempted to crossing with another A. asterias but I could not
make same as Mirakuru. And then I sold all plants in my greenhouse
to Mr. Sato at last, so I never sold any Mirakuru to somebody.
However I sure sold seedlings of Super Kabuto after above episode.
These seedling were given to persons who had a favor to me. And then
These Super Kabuto seedlings were misunderstood for Mirakuru Kabuto.
(Yowichirow: It seemed an unlikely misinterpretation)
This name, Mirakuru Kabuto, is good common name and I am pleased
It. On the other hand I much regret to hear such F2 or F3 of
Mirakuru Kabuto, which was sold by nurseryman (or grower?).

page 9 Cultivation by T. Sato
The Mirakuru grow very well, so I take care to avoid body cracking.
The seedling of Mirakuru is not similar to original Mirakuru, but I
will try to make same face of Mirakuru.
page 10 Super Kabuto by T.Sato
Mr. Takeo found this forma plant at collector's piled stocks.
I purchase it with another A. asterias, Mirakuru and seedlings as
mentioned above. -snip-
upper Left is Mirakuru, Right is Super
middle Super with flower
lower Super just imported
bottom Super white velvet dot.
page 11 Upper One of Super Kabuto. starfish type.
M Right White dot near apex become large.
M Left A big beauty.
L Right a big white dots
L Left Original type
page 12 & 13
Several types of Super Kabuto
page 14
Right upper & middle: Super Hanazono
------- It starts here as ordinary A. asterias --------
Right lower & Left upper: Ohkan type
Left Middle & lower: Starfish type.
page 15 Large A. asterias
U right: nudum type
M right: It seems just limit to grow.
M left : 22 centimeter!
Lower: well-proportioned one.
page 16 & 17 Field collected A. asterias
page 18 Large areole type
page 19 Condensed white dots type
page 20 A. asterias f. nudum
page 21 cristata
page 24-26 monstrosa
page 27 'Ekubo' mean cheek dimples
page 28 'Kitsukow' mean tortoiseshell pattern.
It must pronounce 'kit-coh' in Japanese.
page 32
right: varieg. with Kitsukow pattern.
left: Rokkotsu (pronunciation: Rock-coats)
Rokkotsu mean ribs in human's chest.
page 33
right: Ibo Kabuto
left: Fukuryou (pronunciation: Fu-ku-ryow)
Fukuryou means sub ribs.
page 34
right: Hakujo Kabuto. It means White streak.
left : Rasen Kabuto. Rasen mean spiral.
page 35
right: Kigan Kabuto. Kigan mean strange rocks.
This monstrous form is very rare.
left upper: Fukuryou Kabuto. pronunciation is same as
page 33 right, but this plant is hybrid.
left lower: Wakareriyow Kabuto
A rib develops division each.
page 36 without areole
page 37
right: Hakuun. Virus caused this form.
(Yowichirow:I never agree above view)
left upper: Aoi Kabuto. The only one plant, but interest.
left lower: Donatu areole Kabuto. Donatu mean doughnut.
page 38
right upper: Kofuki Kabuto. Kofuki mean Offset.
right lower: Musha Kabuto. Musha mean 'SAMURAI'. This name is
imaginary name, must have obvious spins.
left : Rensei. It means chain of areole.
page 39 Showa Kabuto
Left (B/W picture):
This picture appears 'Shaboten-no-kenkyuu' magazine in June 1935.
Mr. Yoshio Okumura purchase wild collected A. asterias at
Nagoya in Feb 1935, which diameter is 13.5 centimeter. He found
a strange flower in the spring. Also He observed same flower in
next year 1936.
Right: These plants appear in Mr. T. Sato's nursery. He succeed
to make some posterity.
page 40-43 Rib variant
page 44 Akabana Kabuto. Aka-bana mean Red-Flower.
left & right upper: Akabana Kabuto
right midd. & lower: Ibosaki Kabuto. One areole produce two/more
page 45 monst. of flowers
page 46
left:crist. of flowers
right: flowers appear from trench.
page 47
right: Kiku Kabuto. Kiku mean chrysanthemum.
left : edging around areole
page 48 Hanazono Kabuto. (You must know very well)
page 50-52 varieg.
page 53
right: Texas Kabuto. (This name not concern to TEXAS in USA)
left upper: Ohkan Kabuto. Ohkan mean crown.
left lower: pure yellow flower type
page 54
right: (Mr.)Kojima type
left : (Mr.)Horikoshi type
page 55
left: Dream Kabuto. Mr.Katukichi Itami makes up this type.
right: (Mr.)Akimoto type
page 56
left: white Kabuto Mr. Yoshio Shiraishi makes up this type.
This plant was made from crossbreed with A. coahuilense
of ancestor.
right (Mr.)Watanabe type
page 57
left: (Mr.)Ookubo type
right:(Mr.)Sano type

58-63 Some wonderful type.

<<Vol. 2 myriostigma family>>

My comments must write in []
page 1 preface by T. Sato
page 2 The roots of A. myriostigma
A. myriostigma was imported to Japan in 1868. and etc....
page 3 Classification for A. myriostigma group by T. Sato
page 4 Common A. myriostigma in Japan.
page 5 left : A. myriostigma which is collected in Tamaulipas Mexico.
right: A. myriostigma which is collected in Potosi Mexico.
page 6 A. myriostigma f. multicoststum [???]
This form similar to A. myriostigma ssp. tulense.
All plants of this pages was field collected plants in same
page 7-11
A. myriostigma var. strongygonum
page 12-13
A. myriostigma f. quadricostatum ???
page 14-15
A. myriostigma cv. "nudum"
This form is common species, and has much difference face.
page 16
A. myrio. f. glabrum
This form loses popularity in Japan.
page 17
A. myrio. var. tulense
page 18
A. myrio. f. columnare
[I consider this form to be A. myrio. var. tulense]
page 19
A. myrio. cv. "nudum" four rib type
[This form called "Hekiho-gyoku" in Japan]
page 20
An essay by T. Sato Title: "Some problem of A. myriostigma family"
Most of old A. myriostigma are not pure-blooded in Japan, They has
other bloods strongygonum, nudum, tulense, columnare and etc.
While famous cactophiles made Hekihou-gyoku, Sankaku-ranpo, Onzuka
and also beauty variegated. I hope these beauty plants is accepted by
foreign people.
I regret that most of famous types are not pureblooded, therefore
their body shift to small in average size.
page 21
Two ribs form!
This capricious form reduces own rib but increase in sometimes.
page 22-24
Three ribs form
We knew some three/four ribbed A. myriostigma and var. nudum was
found in Jaumave Tamaulipas Mexico.
page 25-26
Over six ribs type.
This form was made out by cross between multi-ribbed A. myriostigma
and other same type.
page 27
Spiral rib type.
page 28
left: FUKURIYO means "It has sub-ribs".
right:FUKURIYU means "It has rise-up-ribs".
page 29
Hanakago means a common name for Azutekium ritteri.
This form is still rare type in Japanese cactophile.
page 30
page 31
same as page 25-26, but nudum.
page 32-35
'Kitsukow' mean tortoiseshell pattern.
page 36
having spin type
page 37
Ball type.
This type seems look like BALL.
page 38-39
cv. RED [???]
[We call this type 'KOH-YO'. KOH-YO means red/yellow leaves in autumn]
This form appears early stage of seedling but vanish at large(6-7cm)
size. In winter, KOH-YO is most beautiful but pale in summer.
page 40-46
page 47-49
Mr. T. Sato sold this small grafted plant Yen30,000/stock in 1979.
page 50-51
page 52-56
page 57-59
page 60-62
monstrosa (miscellaneous)
page 63
Red flower type
page 64
Mr. Sato insists that this form was caused by virus.
[I don't think so!]

<<Vol. 3 Capricorn family>>

My comments must write in []
Enclose 'w' with a circle means imported plants
page 1 preface by T. Sato
page 2-4
The roots of A. capricorne
page 5 right: stout spine
left : no white dots along the rib-top
down : [in the nursery]
page 6 various of A. capricorne
page 7-8
A. capricorne var. major
This species are larger than A. capricorne, also stout spine.
I expect this species will be a forma but not a variety.
First introduction was appearing on Japanese journal in May 1942.
It is too difficult to discriminate A. capricorne and this species.
A. cap. var. minus
spine is round and shin, 10-13 per areole. They has dense white dots
to thin, is full of variety. Body is smaller than original, but
flower is bigger. Spine develops around own body. I hear of yellow
spine type.
page 11
A. niveum
Circular spine and stout black or yellow color.
It is in confusion, A. niveum, A. capricorne, A. cap. var. minor
and A. cap. var. major. New seeds from Queretaro Mexico come to
Japan in recently, must discriminate from in the past.
right: wild plants in Queretaro(spell?) Mexico.
left : -do-
down : -do-
page 12 Upper right: at Belgium
Upper left : yellow spine
Middle right: at Kohres nursery
Middle left : at Kohres nursery
Lower : selection from former in Japan
page 13-14
A. capricorne cv. 'snowfrec' -like; -fashion; pseudo-
[These are mere dense white dots type]
page 15
A. crassispinum
Rib is same as A. capricorne, but lack white dots and stout spines
Many field-collected plants imported to Japan until 1940, however
no plants imported since then. We once imported some plants at ten
years ago. Japanese common name named by Mr. Yoshio Okumura in 1932.

page 16
Upper right: in Germany
Upper left : in Belgium
Middle: stout specimen.
Lower : at nursery.
page 17
Upper : pure yellow flower
page 20 variety??
page 21-22
yellow spines type
Yellow spined A. crassispinum is common in Japan, but no description
in foreign literature. There are yellow spined plants regionally
in Mexico.
page 23-24
A. crassispinum with white dots form.
page 25 'KIHO-GYOKU'
A. crassispinum yellow spine type.
page 26 'KIGAN' means 'monstrosa'
Upper: A. capricorne
Middle: A. senilis
Lower : A. capricorne
page 27-29
'KIGAN' A. crassispinum
page 30 cv 'crassispinoides'
It called 'crassispinoides' in Europe, is caltivar species.
I have seen this species in 'Die Gattung Astrophytum by SADOVSKY'.
Similar to A. cap. var. mius but yellow spine and pure yellow
flower. This distinctive species will made by multi-crossbreeding.
page 32-34
A. senile
page 35-36
A. senile 'aureum' ???
Same as A. senile but yellow spine.
page 37 cristata
page 38-40

<<Vol 4 Ornatum & Coahuilense family>>

page 1-39 8-)
LOWER LEFT : bogus one
To avoid get a bogus MIRAKURU KABUTO, I will publish photo of
genuine MIRAKURU KABUTO. It appears low probability in all seedlings
from MIRAKURU KABUTO. And It is difficult to distinguish from good one
or not during juvenile plants. This feature is differ from SUPER KABUTO.
Please compare areole and white dot of genuine from bogus.

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